Hearing Impairments

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AASEP's Comprehensive Overview of Hearing Impairments

Click Here to go to AASEP's comprehensive overview of Hearing Impairments.  For numerous other links related to this topic, refer to the variety of topics below. 


Accommodations/Modifications

  • Overview - A hearing impairment is a hearing loss that prevents a person from totally receiving sounds through the ear. If the loss is mild, the person has difficulty hearing faint or distant speech. A person with this degree of hearing impairment may use a hearing aid to amplify sounds. If the hearing loss is severe, the person may not be able to distinguish any sounds.
  • Reluctance to ask for accommodations - When the Americans with Disabilities Act was passed more than a decade ago, it was a landmark event. But today, under-accommodation is still a major barrier to equal employment opportunities for people with disabilities.
  • Accommodations in large lectures - Some students with disabilities face challenges in large lectures. Needs vary greatly among individuals. Students are the best source of information about their needs.
  • Accommodations in computer labs - As increasing numbers of people with disabilities pursue educational opportunities that require computer use, the accessibility of computing facilities becomes even more critical. To put it simply, computer labs need to be accessible to all users. Students with disabilities need equal access to: (1) building/facilities, (2) lab staff, (3) physical space and printed materials, (4) computers and software, and (5) electronic resources.
  • Accommodations in writing assignments - The writing process, which includes spelling and grammar, may also be difficult due to hearing, language, or learning disabilities.

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Adults with Hearing Impairments

  • Books for adults that are hearing related - A list of hearing-related books for adults
  • Adult Education and People with Disabilities - Hearing Impairments and Deafness: Adult students with hearing impairments may require accommodations and assistive devices in the classroom setting to have best access to educational programming.
  • Have you heard: Hearing loss in older adults - Accurate estimates of hearing loss are very difficult to obtain. There are two main reasons for this. First, most of the research information available relies on self-reports and the inconsistent use of terms and definitions. Second, it is common for people to deny their hearing loss and/or not realize the extent of their hearing impairment. For example, many hard of hearing people have adapted well to their hearing loss and hearing aids and may not report any hearing difficulties, therefore excluding themselves from national estimates.

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Advocacy

  • Public policy and advocacy statistics on hearing impairments - American deaf and hard of hearing statistics
  • List of Hearing Impairment organizations - A good place to start to get advocacy information and guidance
  • Adaptive Technology Resource Centre - To empower persons who arehearing impaired to function independently. Provides support to people with deaf blindness and outreach/advocacy to ensure independency
  • Practical needs special support - List of resources relating to hearing impairment
  • Advocacy, Inc. - a nonprofit corporation funded by the United States Congress to protect and advocate for the legal rights of people with disabilities in Texas. It is not a part of state or local government. It has offices throughout the State of Texas, and a Board of Directors appointed mainly by disability organizations.

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Assessing Individuals with Hearing Impairments

  • Information/Steps for infants and newborns - Universal newborn hearing testing was selected for study by HTAC based on several criteria, including: anticipated interest by the Minnesota Legislature and the broader community; the large number of persons potentially affected (all newborns, their parents, providers, and others); and questions regarding clinical effectiveness, costs, and cost-effectiveness of screening. In addition, federal law requires that all states provide intervention and educational assistance to children with disabilities, including those with hearing loss, beginning at birth to six years of age.
  • Assessing Children for the Presence of a Disability - The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) has been amended! This is the law that guides how schools deliver special education and related services to students with disabilities. You will be reading about the IDEA in this publication. This note is to alert you that, while much of the law remains essentially the same, some aspects have changed as a result of the amendments passed in June, 1997. Bear this in mind as you read about the IDEA in this publication.
  • Information - Universal screening programs have been implemented across the United States. Hearing loss occurs often enough in the general population to justify the legislation for universal hearing screening programs in 37 states.
  • Assessing Children for the Presence of a Disability - This News Digest focuses upon the assessment process -- the ways and primary skill areas in which school systems collect information in order to determine if a child is eligible for special education and related services and to make informed decisions about that child's educational placement and instruction. By law, this process must involve much more than just giving the student a standardized test in the area of his or her suspected disability.
  • Maine Law on hearing assessment - Student right to screening for sight and hearing defects.  Each student shall be screened periodically to determine whether they have sight or hearing defects.
  • Infant hearing screening - With the passage of the Newborn and Infant Hearing Screening and Intervention Act of 1999, which gives grants to states to start newborn hearing screening programs, the United States is getting the average age of identification of hearing loss down to where it should be — in infancy.

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Assistive Technology

  • Assistive listening devices in the classroom - Many students who use hearing aids effectively in quiet environments have a difficult time following information presented in large college classrooms. In the classroom, the instructor's voice is competing with background noise, room echo, and distance. Therefore, the intelligibility of the instructor's voice is degraded by the poor room acoustics as well as the hearing loss.
  • Acoustics - Acoustical Surfaces Inc. is a company with 25 years of experience with over 400 specialty soundproofing, noise control, vibration control, acoustical and architectural products. Call today to speak with a knowledgeable acoustics and soundproofing professional to explain cost effective solutions. Hundreds of products, easy to use, fast shipment, best price guarantee, green and fire safe products.
  • Accessibility guidelines - Guidelines from the Americans With Disabilities Act
  • Overview-Microsoft - Assistive technology products are specialty products designed to provide additional accessibility to individuals who have physical or cognitive difficulties, impairments, and disabilities. When selecting assistive technology products, it is critical to find products that are compatible with the computer operating system and programs on the particular computer.
  • Types of assistive technology - Assistive technology products are designed to provide additional accessibility to individuals who have physical or cognitive difficulties, impairments, and disabilities. When selecting assistive technology products, it is crucial to find products that are compatible with the computer operating system and programs on the particular computer being used.

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Audio/Video Tapes

  • Videos plus - From Deafresources.com
  • Videos - From SHHH bookstore
  • Captioned media program - The mission of the Captioned Media Program (CMP) is to provide all persons who are deaf or hard of hearing awareness of and equal access to communication and learning through the use of captioned educational media and supportive collateral materials. The CMP also acts as a captioning information and training center. The ultimate goal of the CMP is to permit media to be an integral part in the lifelong learning process for all stakeholders in the deaf and hard of hearing community: adults, students, parents, and educators.
  • American Sign Language videos - If you want to see American Sign Language (ASL) you've found your best resource! ASL Access gives you access to ASL stories and ASL lessons for all ages and stages - and more. How? Easy! You let your library, school, college, agency, or other organization know about ASL Access, and we help the staff to find and buy great ASL videos for you to borrow. Tell everyone you know about ASL Access. Get your hands on ASL!

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Books and Publications

  • List of Books - From Hearingcenteronline.com
  • Assessment and Intervention Book - Research and current practice for communicative disorders practitioners. Collection of articles reprinted from the journal Topics in Language Disorders, 1982-1990. 27 contributors.
  • Counseling Children with Hearing Impairments and Their Families - 224 pages on counseling children with hearing impairments and their families
  • Studies in Disorders of Communication - John Bamford, in all his audiological prowess, has helped to produce perhaps the greatest works of literature in the field of audiology.
  • Impact of Hearing Impairment on Family Life - Hearing loss now strikes one in seven people but how to study the impact of hearing loss on relationships has continually baffled researchers. The authors' personal experience with profound hearing loss and her roles as wife, mother, social worker and counsellor, suggest that the complexities involved might be fruitfully explored by using an intensive and repetitive interviewing technique.
  • Genetics and Hearing Impairment - The auditory system extends from the pinna of the external ear to the auditory cortex of the brain, with neural interconnections to several brain centres that enable correlation of auditory information with other sensory inputs and/or mediate reflex actions.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Hearing Impairment in Children - Updated and revised, this influential text provides a wealth of information, in a reader-friendly style, on all issues pertaining to hearing loss in children Integrates otologic and audiologic understanding of the diseases and conditions that cause congenital and acquired hearing loss Discusses effective infant hearing screening strategies, birth-related trauma, congenital hearing loss, and effective strategies for habilitation Includes new chapter on cochlear implants, including the latest developments.
  • Hearing Impairment in Children - 450 pages, March 1988.  A good text on hearing impairment in children
  • When the Hearing Gets Hard: Winning the Battle Against Hearing Impairment - Suss, who underwent a severe hearing loss herself, frankly discusses the challenges of hearing impairment. From a motivational point of view, she recounts fascinating experiences of hearing-impaired actors, sports personalities, and business executives. On the practical side, she discusses how to cope with telephones, doorbells, driving, shopping, and participation in other public activities.
  • Children with Hearing Impairment: Contemporary Trends - 401 Pages, January 1998.
  • Effectively Educating Students with Hearing Impairments - 468 pages, October 1990.  A good text on teaching students with hearing impairments.
  • Hearing and Hearing Impairment - 653 pages, 1979.  A classic text on hearing and hearing impairment
  • Hearing Impairment - A guide for people with auditory handicaps and those concerned with their care and rehabilitation
  • Hearing Impairments in Young Children - 239 Pages, October, 1981.  A text on hearing impairments in young children.
  • Serving all Learners with Hearing Impairment - Ms. English has written a very concise and useful book for audiologist and educators. Very few people have been able to link more clearly than she the impact of hearing loss on education and how that hearing loss makes educational attainment that much more difficult for these children. Not only does she talk about the responsibilities of audiologists, but also of parents and educators in making learning more accessible for students who are deaf or have varying degrees of hearing loss.
  • Screening for Hearing Impairment in Young Children - Written for a professional readership, this book offers practical guidance on hearing screening to facilitate the identification of hearing impairment in children at the earliest possible stage. It contains a description and evaluation of the methods for different age groups, and practical guidelines on how to conduct each test, supported by illustrations and photographs.
  • Guidelines for Libraries Serving Persons with a Hearing Impairment or a Visual Impairment - 31 pages, June 1987.  Guidelines for libraries regarding hearing impairment
  • Case Studies in Clinical Rehabilitation Assessment and Hearing Impairment - Guidelines from the national association of the deaf (1987)
  • Identifying Early Phonological Needs in Children with Hearing Impairments - From the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf (1992)

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Causes of Hearing Impairments

  • How Common is Hearing Loss and What Causes It? - Approximately 28 million Americans have a hearing impairment. Hearing loss is one of the most prevalent chronic health conditions in the United States, affecting people of all ages, in all segments of the population, and across all socioeconomic levels.
  • Causes and Types of Hearing Impairment - The following medical conditions are some of the possible causes of Hearing impairment as a symptom. There are likely to be other possible causes, so ask your doctor about your symptoms.
  • Info on causes - A detailed list of the various causes of hearing loss.
  • Extensive and comprehensive list - Diseases and syndromes that cause hearing loss, including rubella, meningitis, CMV, and Glue Ear.
  • Causes and types - Although many things can cause hearing loss, some of the most common factors are listed here. Hearing loss is divided into thwo categories: conductive hearing loss,sensorineural hearing loss, ormixed (combination of both above). It is also possible to have hearing loss resulting from a conbination of conductive, and sonserineural problems.
  • Hearing loss causes - While some hearing loss is expected due to aging, most premature hearing loss is caused by exposure to excessive sounds, some chemicals and consumption of some medications. This table lists the main "offenders" in each category.
  • Hearing loss FAQs - Many different conditions can result in hearing loss, and the cause can be located in any part of the hearing system. At any age, hearing can be damaged gradually or suddenly. Most often a hearing loss is gradual and painless, in many cases developing so slowly it is barely noticeable. It is typical for people not to realize that they have lost some of their hearing, even though family, business associates and friends may be quite aware of it.
  • Possible causes of hearing loss - Hearing loss is invisible and almost always painless. There are no physical warning signs, except for the occasional cases of tinnitus or ringing in the ear(s). Most hearing losses develop over a period of 25 to 30 years and often get gradually worse with age. Typically between the ages 45 to 60, there can be enough deterioration to interfere with communication.
  • Causes and Types of Hearing Loss - Heritable forms of hearing loss can be congenital or delayed onset; conductive, sensorineural, or mixed type; mild to profound in degree; progressive or nonprogressive; unilateral or bilateral and symmetrical or asymmetrical in severity and configuration; as well as syndromic or nonsyndromic.  The genetic syndromes that include hearing loss are commonly classified according to the other systems involved where as the nonsyndromic hearing disorders have been classified by their audiological characteristics, age of onset, presence or absence of progression, and mode of inheritance.
  • Age-Related Changes in Hearing - Hearing impairment may be a product of many factors, including normal aging. Often, it is difficult to know how muchhearing loss there is due to aging and how much is attributed to other factors. Prolonged noise exposure (e.g., farm machinery), injury, medications, disease and heredity are all factors that affect hearing.
  • Extensive and comprehensive list of causes - From About.com's guide to deafness and hearing
  • Pendred Syndrome - Pendred syndrome is a genetic disorder that causes early hearing loss in children. It also can affect the thyroid gland and sometimes may affect a person's balance. The syndrome is named after Vaughan Pendred, the physician who first described individuals with the disorder.

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Characteristics of Individuals with Hearing Impairments

  • Info and Educational Implications - The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), formerly the Education of the Handicapped Act (P.L. 94-142), includes "hearing impairment" and "deafness" as two of the categories under which children with disabilities may be eligible for special education and related services programming. While the term "hearing impairment" is often used generically to describe a wide range of hearing losses, including deafness, the regulations for IDEA define hearing loss and deafness separately.
  • Slide presentation - Students with visual impairments may experience associated social and psychological difficulties.  The more severe the impairment, the greater the chance for isolation and a difficult adjustment.

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Classifications/Types of Hearing Impairments

  • Mild hearing loss - Having been profoundly deaf since birth, I can not claim to have a good personal understanding of mild hearing loss. However, I am aware that a mild hearing loss, if not identified and treated, can harm speech and language development in young children, and can have an impact on communication with people.
  • Types and degrees of hearing loss - You or your child have been diagnosed as having a hearing loss. What type of hearing loss is it? What degree of hearing loss is it? The type and degree of hearing loss determines the method of treatment for the hearing loss.
  • Unilateral hearing loss - In a deaf/hoh community where most people have enough hearing loss to need hearing aids or cochlear implants, unilateral hearing loss appears to get little attention. Who are the people with unilateral hearing loss? They are the ones who can hear normally in one ear, but the other ear is impaired.
  • Disorders of the outer ear - Outer ear disorders rarely cause permanent deafness or hearing impairment.
  • Disorders of the middle ear - The middle ear contains the eardrum (tympanic membrane) and three bones called the malleus, incus, and stapes (hammer, anvil, and stirrup), collectively known as the ossicles. Sound waves striking the eardrum cause the three bones to strike a fluid-filled portion of the inner ear called the cochlea, where the sound waves are transformed into nerved impulses by the movement of the fluid.
  • Disorders of the inner ear - The inner ear (ear labyrinth) contains the cochlea, which have previously been described, and the auditory nerve, which transmits impulses concerning sound and balance to the brain.

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Classroom Management

  • References - References related to learning disabilities in the deaf/hard of hearing population compiled by Steven Thomas Hardy, M.A. and William Kachman Ph.D., NCSP Kendall Demonstration Elementary School Gallaudet University
  • References - Natural Communication, Inc. (NCI) -- a nonprofit organization in Northeast Ohio -- is defined by its purpose: to benefit children who are deaf or hard of hearing through support, information, and encouragement to their parents and families.  This list of references comes from NCI. 
  • References - A list of references compiled by Caroliine Bowen, PhD, a speech-language pathologist.
  • References - This page is dedicated to deafness and hard of hearing resources. This list is growing constantly.
  • Strategies for teaching students with hearing impairments - Over time, the average hearing impaired student shows an ever increasing gap in vocabulary growth, complex sentence comprehension and construction, and in concept formation as compared to students with normal hearing. Hearing impaired students often learn to "feign" comprehension with the end result being that the student does have optimal learning opportunities. Therefore, facilitative strategies for hearing impaired students are primarily concerned with various aspects of communication.
  • General strategies - Have students sit closer to the lecturer.  Look directly at the student.  Speak slowly, naturally, and clearly.  Slowing down slightly may help.  Do not exaggerate your lip movements or shout.  If you have a mustache, keep it well trimmed...
  • Professional presentation - The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that materials and information be available in alternate formats whenever possible and reasonable to do so. It is a good idea to assume that there will always be people in your audience who have difficulties seeing your material or hearing your presentation. When you make your presentation accessible to persons with hearing or vision loss, everyone in your audience will benefit.
  • Sign language 101 - Whether you are a beginner, or a more experienced signer, there is something here for you. Find resources on learning sign language or options for practicing your sign language
  • American Sign Language - American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex language that employs signs made with the hands and other movements, including facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the first language of many deaf North Americans, and one of several communication options available to deaf people. ASL is said to be the fourth most commonly used language in the United States.
  • Signwriting - Sign language is helpful and fun. Too bad it can't be written. Or can it? A written form of sign language using graphical symbols to represent the signs, called SignWriting, was developed in 1974 by the Center for Sutton Movement Writing.
  • Signwriting overview - Expressing yourself and having fun with sign language.
  • Classroom acoustics - Typical kid whispering, giggling, and laughter aside, the average classroom is loaded with noises that can be distracting for a hard of hearing student trying to learn. Awareness of the importance of improving classroom acoustics - managing the classroom noise - is increasing as studies show that improvement results in measurable gains in learning/speech perception (student behavior may also improve).
  • Growing up deaf-classroom issues - The classroom ghost. That is what I felt like at times in the mainstream classroom as a deaf child, bereft of any interpreters and often without notetakers.
  • Cued speech - Cued Speech is another means of communication that may make it possible for a deaf child to pick up English language skills. I myself do not know cued speech, but do know that parents who have used cued speech have been generally pleased with it.
  • Deaf children with learning disabilities - One of my best deaf friends in college did not graduate from Gallaudet with me in 1987. What kept her from graduating? At that time, Gallaudet required all students - no exceptions - to pass certain courses. My friend had a learning disability that prevented her from being able to pass the required course. I will never forget the day she told me tearfully that she would not be able to graduate.
  • Deaf and music - "Rhythm helps the children learn language," my child's teacher explained, when I expressed surprise that the deaf children were going to music classes. I shouldn't have been surprised. There are (and were) deaf musicians, and research has been done into music and the deaf.
  • Strategies for Teaching Students with Hearing Impairments - Over time, the average hearing impaired student, as compared to students with normal hearing , shows an ever increasing gap in vocabulary growth, complex sentence comprehension and construction, and in concept formation. Hearing impaired students often learn to "feign" comprehension with the end result being that the student does have optimal learning opportunities. Therefore, facilitative strategies for hearing impaired students are primarily concerned with various aspects of communication.
  • Strategies for communication between the hearing and the hearing-impaired - The strategies for communication with HOH (hard-of-hearing) persons and with profoundly/totally deaf persons are different. This document covers both.
  • Tips - If you know ahead of time that the person will need an interpreter, you can request one from OSD. Be aware that there are time deadlines so plan early. If a person with a hearing impairment appears unexpectedly, don't panic and hesitate to help because an interpreter is not present -- you can always communicate by paper and pencil. Getting the message across is more important than the medium and it will show that you genuinely want to help.
  • Bilingual and hearing impaiments - During the last two decades bilingual-bicultural education programs (programs which recognize that children may come from a different culture and speak a different language in the home than in the school) have flourished in the United States as the ethnic composition of children attending public schools has become more diverse. In the late 1980's discussion of bilingual-bicultural education for children who are Deaf brought about new theories.
  • Info - Hearing impairment is a broad term that refers to hearing losses of varying degrees from hard of hearing to total deafness. The major challenge facing students with hearing impairments is accurate communication. Hearing impaired students demonstrate varying degrees of communication skills. Among the conditions that affect the development of communication skills of persons with hearing impairments are the nature and degree of loss, the degree and type of residual hearing, the degree of benefit derived from amplification by hearing aids, the family environment, and the age of onset.
  • Info/Tips - The causes and degrees of hearing loss vary across the deaf and hard-of-hearing community, as do methods of communication and attitudes toward deafness.
  • Welcoming the Child with Hearing Impairment into Child Care - Just because a child has a hearing loss doesn’t mean the child is deaf. For every child that is completely deaf there are at least 10 children with partial hearing. Most of these hard of hearing children learn to speak, develop language, and learn in school using their hearing rather than sign language.
  • Info - Hard of Hearing and Deaf Students: A Resource Guide to Support Classroom Teachers
  • Captioned media programs online - The mission of the Captioned Media Program (CMP) is to provide all persons who are deaf or hard of hearing awareness of and equal access to communication and learning through the use of captioned educational media and supportive collateral materials. The CMP also acts as a captioning information and training center. The ultimate goal of the CMP is to permit media to be an integral part in the lifelong learning process for all stakeholders in the deaf and hard of hearing community: adults, students, parents, and educators.
  • Work related information - As a high school student, you may think that you have plenty of time to decide on your career path and to acquire the skills you will need to market yourself successfully. Some people believe that completing an academic program will guarantee them a job. This is not always true. What can you do to make yourself attractive to a future employer?
  • Disability related terms - A glossary of disability related terms from the University of Washington
  • Hearing and rehabilitation - For the rehabilitation counselor, it is important to understand the extent of hearing loss that an individual has sustained and the remaining functional hearing capacity. Together with this, the extent to which hearing may be improved through the use of hearing aids or other devices.

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Definition

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Diagnosis

  • PAHCS starts hearing screening of newborns - While babies with hearing impairments may look normal, if they don't get help, they might not sound normal later in life. If a hearing disability goes without notice and without treatment, a child may pass crucial months without hearing the outside world, processing its sounds, and learning the language of humans. They may fail to learn to communicate and fall well behind their age peers.
  • Information on the diagnosis of hearing impairments - Genetic forms of hearing loss must be distinguished from acquired (non-genetic) causes of hearing loss. The genetic forms of hearing loss are diagnosed by otologic, audiologic, and physical examination, family history, ancillary testing (such as CT examination of the temporal bone), and molecular genetic testing.
  • Pediatric hearing loss - Developed by: Shannon Esse, M.A. The University of Texas at Austin and Linda Thibodeau, Ph.D., The University of Texas at Dallas

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Frequently Asked Questions

  • FAQ on hearing loss - From HEARING LOSS ASSOCIATION of  WASHINGTON - Formerly Washington State Association - Self Help for Hard of Hearing People (WASA-SHHH)
  • FAQ on TTY - Frequently asked questions on using and communicating with TTY devices

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History of the Field

  • History of hearing aids - Somewhere up in the attic, there is something that really belongs in a museum. What is it? It is my old body-worn hearing aid from early childhood. Body aids were already on their way out at the time that I had to wear them. However, when I was a child hearing aid technology had not yet advanced enough for profoundly deaf children to be able to wear behind the ear aids.
  • History of closed captioning - The earliest days of captioning on television meant open captioning, with the words printed directly on the screen. Open captioning began with the French Chef on PBS (1972).
  • History of the cochlear implants - If you have seen a cochlear implant, you may wonder how such a device came to be. The history and development of the cochlear implant, a modern tool for hearing, actually spans centuries.
  • History of Gallaudet University - Fall 1986: Gallaudet College became a University! I was a senior there then, but missed the historic ceremony because I had fallen asleep in my dorm room exhausted after working literally all night on a special edition of the Buff and Blue student newspaper to commemorate the occasion.
  • History of signed language - What we call American Sign Language actually has roots in Europe. One version of its history has it beginning in Italy. It is also known that in the 18th century, the Abbe De l'Epee of France developed an early form of sign language that contributed to American Sign Language.
  • History of the TTY - A deaf scientist, Robert Weitbrecht, is credited with the development of the TTY in the 1960s. The earliest TTYs were huge hunks of metal with printer paper coming out of them. I remember seeing one in the home of a family friend in the early '70s. and being quite impressed. These early TTYs are now antique, and can only be found in places such as the Smithsonian.
  • People in deaf history - An extensive list of people in deaf history

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Medical Issues/Medications

  • Effects of hearing loss - It is well recognized that hearing is critical to speech and language development, communication, and learning. Children with listening difficulties due to hearing loss or auditory processing problems continue to be an underidentified and underserved population.
  • Cochlear implants - Districts have offered fewer traditional sign language classes to students with cochlear implants because of a high interest in speech-based courses. The cochlear implant includes a speech processor that is attached to the outside of the ear. The implant itself is planted deep inside the inner ear to bypass damaged nerves, but it doesn't amplify sound. It converts audio vibes into electric pulses, then zips those waves directly to the brain.
  • Deaf people and cerebral palsy - Deaf people with cerebral palsy have been a part of my life ever since elementary school, when I neither understood cerebral palsy nor knew the name. When I was in the fourth grade, there was a deaf girl named Lisa. Lisa had difficulty walking but I thought she was the same as me because her cerebral palsy was not that severe.
  • Deaf people with Autism - Sometimes, deafness is misdiagnosed as autism and vice versa. Other times, a child will turn out to be both deaf AND autistic. Deaf children with autism are rare, but do exist.
  • Deafblindness - Before I was a teenager, I had never known a deafblind person. That all changed one year. That year, I had a deaf friend. This friend started having difficulty at night time. She was beginning to bump into things.
  • Deafness and balance problems - What causes balance problems in people with hearing loss? BoysTownHospital.org explains how balance depends on the interconnection of the eyes, the ears, and balance organs. Among the symptoms of balance problems cited by BoysTown is difficulty in riding a bicycle (wonder if balance had anything to do with the fact I started riding a two-wheel bicycle late?) In addition, the page notes that "about 30%" of profoundly deaf people may have balance problems.
  • Deafness and mental retardation - Often, the same conditions that cause deafness may also cause mental retardation. The rubella that caused my deafness is one of them. CMV (cytomegalovirus) is another. Infants who are shaken can become deaf and mentally retarded.

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Organizations

  • National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management - The goal of the National Center for Hearing Assessment and Management (NCHAM - pronounced "en-cham") at Utah State University is to ensure that all infants (newborns) and toddlers with hearing loss are identified as early as possible and provided with timely and appropriate audiological, educational, and medical intervention.
  • Hearing Health Magazine Online - Founded in 1958, Deafness Research Foundation is the leading source of private funding for basic and clinical research in hearing science. DRF is committed to making lifelong hearing health a national priority by funding research and implementing education projects in both the government and private sectors.
  • List of National Organizations - From TherapistFinder.net
  • American Society of Deaf Children ASDC - Founded in 1967, ASDC is a national parent-helping-parent organization, supporting families raising children who are deaf or hard- of-hearing.
  • Better Hearing Institute - The Better Hearing Institute (BHI) is a not-for-profit corporation that educates the public about the neglected problem of hearing loss and what can be done about it.  Founded in 1973, we are working to: Erase the stigma and end the embarrassment that prevents millions of people from seeking help for hearing loss, show the negative consequences of untreated hearing loss for millions of Americans and promote treatment and demonstrate that this is a national problem that can be solved.
  • National Association of the Deaf - The mission of the National Association of the Deaf is to promote, protect, and preserve the rights and quality of life of deaf and hard of hearing individuals in the United States of America.
  • Acoustic Neuroma Association - We are a patient member organization, providing information and support to persons diagnosed with or treated for acoustic neuroma and other benign tumors of the cranial nerves.
  • Cochlear Implant Association - Cochlear Implant Association is pleased to announce that we have become a section of the Self Help for Hard of Hearing People organization.
  • Ear Foundation - The mission of the Ear Foundation is to enrich the lives of the hearing and balance impaired through public awareness and continuing medical education.
  • Association of Late Deafened Adults - ALDA was formed in Chicago, Illinois in 1987. Most of those that gathered there were total strangers who had never met or talked to another deafened person, yet they found themselves wonderfully comfortable with one another. There was an unspoken feeling of understanding and patience with each other's communication difficulties. The marvelous sense of fellowship lasted and led to more social gatherings and self help support groups, which swiftly evolved into the Association of Late Deafened Adults (ALDA).
  • Alexander Graham Bell Association - The Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (AG Bell) is a lifelong resource, support network and advocate for listening, learning, talking and living independently with hearing loss.
  • Children of Deaf Adults - CODA: Children of Deaf Adults is a non-profit organization for the adult hearing sons and daughters of deaf parents.
  • National Black Deaf Advocates - The Mission of the National Black Deaf Advocate is to promote the leadership development, economic and educational opportunities, social equality, and to safeguard the general health and welfare of Black deaf and hard of hearing people.
  • Hearing Loss.org - Self Help for Hard of Hearing People is the nation’s largest organization for people with hearing loss. SHHH exists to open the world of communication for people with hearing loss through information, education, advocacy and support.

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Overview and General Information

  • Fact sheet - The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), formerly the Education of the Handicapped Act (P.L. 94-142), includes "hearing impairment" and "deafness" as two of the categories under which children with disabilities may be eligible for special education and related services programming. While the term "hearing impairment" is often used generically to describe a wide range of hearing losses, including deafness, the regulations for IDEA define hearing loss and deafness separately.
  • Overview article - Hearing loss and deafness affect individuals of all ages and may occur at any time from infancy through old age. The U.S. Department of Education (1995) reports that during the 1993-94 school year, 64,249 students aged 6 to 21 (or 1.3% of all students with disabilities) received special education services under the combined categories of "hearing impairment" and "deafness."
  • Facts sheet - Deafness is defined as "a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification." Thus, deafness may be viewed as a condition that prevents an individual from receiving sound in all or most of its forms. In contrast, a child with a hearing loss can generally respond to auditory stimuli, including speech.

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Parent Information

  • Information - Microsoft Word Document.  The purpose of this pamphlet is to provide basic information to help you participate and become a valuable member of the evaluation team.
  • Resources for Parents of Children with Central Auditory Processing Disorders - I'm the mother of a 13-year old girl who has a central auditory processing disorder (CAPD). This web site is intended for the parents whose child has been diagnosed with CAPD or suspect their child may have the disorder.
  • Deaf parents with hearing children - For support for parents, there is the discussion list deaf_parents. Busy deaf parents of hearing children who don't have the time for a discussion list, can participate in an active Deaf Parents of Hearing Children message board at ParentsPlace.com (under Special Needs).
  • Parental Decision Making for Infants with Hearing Impairment - In this longitudinal study of parental decision making among families with a deaf child, we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 families, including six whose children had been identified prior to the age of six months. This paper presents interview segments from three of these families.
  • For families dealing with hearing loss - Web site dedicated to being the best source of information for families of infants and children diagnosed with a hearing loss and the professionals who work with these individuals.
  • Children of Deaf Adults - CODA: Children of Deaf Adults is a non-profit organization for the adult hearing sons and daughters of deaf parents.
  • Back to school advice - If you are a parent of a deaf or hard of hearing child, you may be wondering any one of these questions: "Will this be the year that the school follows my child's IEP?" "Will this be the year that my child makes more progress in reading and writing?" "Will this be the year that my child makes more hearing friends?" "Will my child do well at the (mainstream school or deaf school) or will I need to transfer my child to the (deaf school or mainstream school)?"

  • Charter schools - Charter schools for deaf and hard of hearing students are popping up across the nation. In just the past few years alone, more than five charter schools have opened or are making plans to open. The schools largely follow a bilingual-bicultural education philosophy.
  • Adoption of Deaf/HOH children - Right after leaving college, I started thinking about someday adopting a deaf child so that I could give the child the kind of deaf childhood I did not have. I didn't have to wait long. One day in 1993 I saw a message on a Prodigy message board that, to use a corny phrase, "changed my life."
  • Deafness from birth to death - Hearing Loss from Before Birth to the End If you need information on the "life cycle" of deafness and hearing loss, you have come to the right place.
  • Home schooling - I do not homeschool but am aware that there is a growing number of parents choosing to homeschool their deaf and hard of hearing children, as I have received inquiries seeking information on this topic.
  • PDF information booklet - Virginia’s Resource Guide for Parents has been created for families who have recently learned of their child’s hearing loss. Many people contributed to the content. The guide answers some of the most commonly asked questions and includes information about hearing loss, amplification, communication options, early intervention services, and connecting with other resources.
  • Postsecondary school concerns - The number of students with disabilities entering and completing postsecondary education has increased dramatically in the last decade, yet people with disabilities are still underrepresented in the employment arena. A 1994 poll commissioned by the National Organization on Disability shows that only twenty-nine percent of those with disabilities of working age are employed full- or part-time as compared to seventy-nine percent of those without disabilities. Of the group of people with disabilities, seventy-two percent reported they would like to be employed.
  • Work related information - As a high school student, you may think that you have plenty of time to decide on your career path and to acquire the skills you will need to market yourself successfully. Some people believe that completing an academic program will guarantee them a job. This is not always true. What can you do to make yourself attractive to a future employer?

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Prevalence

  • Facts on the prevalence of hearing impairments - Statistics from Washington State Association regarding the prevalence of hearing impairments
  • PDF file on the prevalence of hearing impairments - How many babies in the general population are born with permanent hearing loss? Although it seems like this should be a simple question to answer, widely discrepant figures are frequently cited ranging from ˝ to 20 babies per 1,000.

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Research

NIDCD Outcomes Research in Children with Hearing Loss -  The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders/National Institutes of Health (NIDCD/NIH) sponsored a workshop on Outcomes Research in Children with Hearing Loss on December 12 and 13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop was to determine and prioritize research needs and discuss design considerations unique to outcomes research in children with hearing loss.

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Transition Services

  • AASEP's comprehensive overview of over 18 transition services

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