Instructional Tactics That Facilitate Inclusion

Are We Doing Successful Inclusion in Secondary Classrooms?

William N. Bender
Richard T. Boon
The University of Georgia


Joe Ann Hinrichs
Walden University

Carl Lawson Sr.
Chicago State University


While inclusive educational placements have become the bedrock of national policy, there are questions concerning support for inclusion among both general and special educators. Further little is known concerning what instructional tactics teachers are actually using in their classes to facilitate inclusion. Ninety-one teachers from grades kindergarten through high school, teaching in either general or special education positions, completed three questionnaires; a) a demographics measure, b) a questionnaire on their use of effective instructional strategies that facilitate inclusion, and c) an attitude scale. Results suggest that attitudes toward inclusion among both general and special educators are less than positive, indicating that special educators may not be strong advocates of inclusive class practices. However, more positive attitudes toward inclusion among middle school teachers were related to increased use of instructional tactics much less frequently than elementary school teachers, suggesting that additional professional development on effective inclusion tactics may be necessary for teachers in the higher grade levels in order to facilitate effective inclusion.

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